Many types of businesses and institutions generate food scraps at their facilities. Larger food-centered businesses like supermarkets, catering operations, and food processors typically have large amounts of food scraps and can benefit significantly by composting food scraps and diverting this material from disposal. If your business or institution has a food service operation it is likely that there are food scraps generated in the preparation, service, and clean-up process that could be diverted from disposal.
The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection established a commercial organics waste ban, which went into effect on October 1, 2014. Estimate your food waste using the RecyclingWorks Food Waste Estimation Guide and learn more about complying with the commercial food material disposal ban here.
Non-perishable and unspoiled perishable food can be donated to local food banks, soup kitchens, and shelters. Food recovery programs can offer numerous benefits to businesses and communities. They provide wholesome food to needy families and help communities and businesses meet state and local waste reduction goals. Food recovery programs can save businesses money otherwise spent on trash collection and disposal fees, allow for tax deductions according to the 1976 Tax Reform Act (Section #2135, p. 106), and improve public image. Since 1996 the Bill Emerson Good Samaritan Food Donation Act has protected good-faith food and grocery donors from civil and criminal liability.
For more information on food donation laws in Massachusetts, see the following legal fact sheets from the Harvard Food Law and Policy Clinic:
Find a list of food banks and food rescue organizations in Massachusetts and learn more about starting a food donation program at your place of business on our Donate Food page.
Gleaning is the practice of collecting produce after a farmer has harvested their crop. During a harvest, edible, nutritious produce can be left in the fields for a number of reasons, like cosmetic imperfections, weather damage, market fluctuations, and the inability of harvest machinery to capture all available produce. Typically, this produce will be plowed into the fields or simply left to decompose. Gleaning organizations work to organize volunteers to rescue this produce, and re-distribute it to people in need that may not otherwise have access to healthy food. This process prevents this food from going to waste, and strengthens regional food systems. The United States Department of Agriculture has a toolkit titled, “Let’s Glean!” that provides instructions on how to begin a gleaning program. Gleaning organizations in Massachusetts include:
If your organization participates in organizing or carrying out gleaning events and would like to be added to this list, contact RecyclingWorks in Massachusetts by phone at 1-888-254-5525 or email.
Don’t trash your food scraps – compost them!
MassDEP estimates that food material accounts for about 15% percent of all municipal solid waste disposed in the state of Massachusetts, or nearly 900,000 tons per year. When other organic materials like compostable paper and yard waste are included, the combined organics total about 25% of all disposal. In today’s economy, many businesses have started composting programs at work because it saves them money on waste disposal costs. Composting is also good for the planet and your local community because it reduces GHG emissions from landfills. According to the Highfields Center for Composting, composting 5 gallons of food scraps is equivalent to not burning one-gallon of gasoline. Finished compost is used by farms and gardeners, reducing the need for chemical-based soil amendments.
The RecyclingWorks in Massachusetts program has worked with local health officials to develop recommended Best Management Practices (BMPs) for use by health agents to support and inform local oversight of commercial food scraps collection programs. These BMPs are also intended to serve as a resource to businesses and institutions and their haulers. In addition, RecyclingWorks has developed a Food Diversion Guide specifically for restaurants.
In 2010, the Center for EcoTechnology helped Big Y Foods supermarkets compost over 1,100 tons of food scraps and recycle over 13,000 tons of cardboard and film plastics; the net result in avoided trash disposal costs and recycling revenue was a contribution of about $2.5 million to Big Y’s bottom line! Big Y and many of the other businesses that compost benefit from these cost savings and also get to share this information with consumers and clients who often choose to spend their dollars with conscientious green businesses. Read the Big Y Supermarket Case History.
What happens to food scraps?
In Massachusetts, there are a number of food and organic material composting operations ranging in size from small farms to large commercial processing facilities. Much like traditional recycling, food scraps can be transported by a hauler to a local designated processing facility. A competitive service market is being created with many new hauling/collection companies and farms working to develop and build additional capacity to manage food scraps in Massachusetts.
There are several methods of composting including open and covered windrows, aerated static piles, and in-vessel technologies to name a few. A newly emerging technology in Massachusetts is called anaerobic digestion which takes organic wastes like food material and captures methane in the process to create renewable energy. For facilities that generate large amounts of food scraps, some on-site solutions may also be an option.
In the basic composting process – naturally occurring microorganisms decompose organic waste. This applies to all the composting methods above. Composting facilities manage the proper balance of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, moisture and temperature to create a salable product that is made available for a variety of uses in landscaping, erosion control, and farming applications.
Commercial composting operations can handle a range of different materials. In addition to the typical feedstock of fruit and vegetable trimmings, coffee grounds, egg shells and napkins, the commercial process can safely handle raw and cooked meats and fats, dairy products, compostable paper like paper towels, waxed cardboard, and compostable cutlery and containers. Exact input material specifications can vary from facility to facility so be sure to check what materials are accepted before including anything beyond food. The Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI) is an excellent resource for determining what items are acceptable in compost at your facility. BPI is a professional association of key individuals and groups from government, industry and academia, which promotes the use, and recycling of biodegradable polymeric materials via composting.
What happens to food once it is composted?
Finished compost is tested and graded, which determines its final use. The resulting product can be used on site at the processing facility such as a farm, or it can be sold as a product that enriches soil by improving its structure and increasing its moisture and nutrient retention. When compost is used in farming, gardening and landscaping applications, it provides organic nutrients to plants without the use of chemical fertilizers and retains moisture in the soil, reducing the need for watering.
The EPA Food Recovery Challenge
The Food Recovery Challenge asks participants to make efforts to reduce the amount of food waste they produce, reducing their expenses and greenhouse gas emissions while helping the community. Read about success stories from the EPA’s food recovery challenge here.
Food Waste Case Studies
RecyclingWorks has helped many businesses and institutions to implement food waste management programs. Read some of their stories below.
Boston Public Market
Learn how Boston Public Market donates surplus food to local food rescue organizations and diverts food scraps for composting.
Town of Lenox
Learn how the Lenox Environmental Committee and RecyclingWorks helped eight small restaurants start diverting food scraps for composting.
Town of Lenox Written Case Study: Learn more about food scraps diversion in Lenox.
Massachusetts College of Art and Design
Learn how Massachusetts College of Art and Design set up a successful front and back-of-the-house compost collection program that diverts about 80 tons of food waste annually.
Massachusetts College of Art and Design Written Case Study: Learn more about the food waste diversion program at MassArt.
Gardner Ale House
Learn how RecyclingWorks helped Gardner Ale House establish a successful program to divert food scraps to an off-site pig farm in advance of the commercial organics ban.
Learn how RecyclingWorks helped the Lenox Hotel in Boston estimate current food waste volumes and develop a successful food scraps diversion program in their three on-site restaurants.
America’s Food Basket Supermarkets
Learn how America’s Food Basket stores worked with CERO, an employee-owned cooperative, and RecyclingWorks to implement a successful composting program.
America’s Food Basket Case Study: Read about the ways America’s Food Basket supermarkets divert 4.5 tons per week of source separated organics, totaling 234 tons annually.
Worcester State University Composting
Learn how Worcester State University set up a successful off-site composting program to comply with the commercial organics waste ban and divert 60 tons of food waste annually.
Learn how Deerfield Academy diverts 80% of their waste through composting, donation, and other waste reduction efforts.
UMASS Amherst Blue Wall Cafe
Blue Wall Case Study: Learn how the University of Massachusetts diverted over 1200 pounds of food waste per day by implementing a composting program.
Boston University Dining Services
Boston University Case Study: Learn How Boston University grew their composting program from 4 tons of organic waste diverted in 2007 to over 850 tons in 2011.
Hilton Garden Inn, Devens, MA
Hilton Garden Inn Case Study: Learn about how the Hilton Garden Inn has implemented commercial composting in the Devens area.
Cooley Dickinson Hospital
Cooley Dickinson Case Study Learn the simple steps used by Cooley Dickinson Hospital used to expand their composting program and divert 60 tons of organic waste!
Blue Man Group
Blue Man Group Case Study: Learn how Blue Man Group expanded their recycling system, began food waste diversion and drastically reduced waste disposal costs while meeting internal green initiatives.
Big Y Supermarkets
Big Y Supermarket Case History: Learn how Big Y supermarkets saved $2.4 million in 2010 by diverting their organic materials and recyclables from disposal.
Northampton Brewery: Learn about Northampton Brewery’s commitment to a low environmental impact and the measures that allow them to divert 300 tons of food waste annually.
Harvard Case Study: Learn how Harvard University achieves 55% waste diversion, despite limited storage and dock space, by utilizing technology and student involvement.
Clio Case Study: Read about the steps the Clio Restaurant in Boston, MA takes to divert nearly 50,000 lbs of food waste annually!
Genzyme Case Study: Learn about the challenges and accomplishments of Genzyme Corporation’s food waste management program, and the steps they implemented to divert 6,620 lbs of food waste in the first year!
State Street Corporation
State Street Case Study: State Street Corporation decreased their total waste volume by 13% simply by implementing a pre-consumer composting program!
Gardner Ale House
Gardner Ale House Case Study: Gardner Ale House in diverts over 70% of its waste by composting and recycling.
Learn about recycling other materials
For more information on other commonly recycled materials visit these pages:
- Bottles & Cans
- Construction Materials
- Fluorescent Lamps/Light Bulbs
- Find out how to start or improve your own recycling program.
- Find a hauler or processor for recyclable materials in your area, search our Recycler Database.
- For more information on recycling in Massachusetts check out the MassDEP Factsheet: Where does it all go?
- Learn about Massachusetts Waste Bans
- For answers to frequently asked questions about the commercial organics waste ban, see MassDEP’s guidance.
- Find out how you can purchase compost and other products produced from food scraps and leaves and yard waste in our Buying Recycled Products section.
- For guidance on starting a food scraps diversion program in the hospitality industry, see our Restaurant Food Waste Diversion Guide.
- Download the Mass DAR Composting Guide.
- Download the Composting Guide and Worksheet from the MassDEP and the Devens Eco-Efficiency Center.